A Refrigerator Works Between 4 And 30

A Refrigerator Works Between 4 And 30Get free shipping on qualified 28. 2) is run in reverse so as to form a refrigerator (Active Fig. If so, go ahead and use a small vacuum to suck up all the dust, or simply use a clean cloth and wipe. I bought my LG refrigerator in 2017, It broke down in April 1st 2020, Luckily I had purchased an extended warranty, LG has been to my house (7) times to repair the unit, they have replaced (4) compressors, and other parts in the process, they were out on Friday May 22nd and did more work, I am very disappointed with LG, The food loss is in the. Distance between island and counter. (a) How much energy is extracted from the hot reser. A Carnot refrigerator operating between -10. Chat 1:1 with an appliance technician Licensed Experts are available 24/7. Refrigerant- $134 \mathrm{a}$ enters the condenser of a steadyflow Carnot refrigerator as a saturated vapor at 90 psia, and it leaves with a quality of $0. 0 m in length a force of only 800 N is required to move it at constant velocity. A standard refrigerator typically has a depth of about 30 to 34 inches, not including the door handles. Four balanced forces are acting on the refrigerator in this case, No matter how hard Mike pushes, he cannot move the refrigerator. Compact fridges are much lighter about 40 lb. A heat pump working on a reversed Carnot cycle has a CoP of 4. It is required to remove 600 calories of heat every second in order to keep the temperature of the refrigerated . Most sound within this range is practically inaudible. Disconnect refrigerator from power source and locate condenser coils. Doing all of these items was easy and cost less than $40 in parts for me. 11-3 11-11 A commercial refrigerator with refrigerant-134a as the working fluid is considered. Hello, I have a Amana bottom freezer refrigerator (summer 2007). 4 kJ/kg are at an initial temperature of 50 degree Celsius. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to saturation lines. A vapour compression refrigerator works between the pressure limits of 60 bar and 25 bar. But the company recently made refrigeration a priority when it came out with its own freestanding counter depth refrigerators, manufactured. The temperature increase in the freezer section during a defrost cycle varies. Whether you lose a job or face a financial crisis for another reason, the stress of unpaid bills is overwhelming. They tout themselves as the largest. Hence, one can calculate the refrigerator's hourly energy consumption by dividing the fridge's amp rating by three since there are three 20-minutes in an hour. Need help finding your model. 2 Listen for the freezer fan inside the freezer. The door-in-door feature has adjustable bins that move up and down, so you can quickly fit whatever you need. This question was asked about the related product: Frigidaire - 20. Readings that are higher or lower indicate an overcharged system. An air conditioner has a COP value 5 means; 1 kW of power input is required to extract 5 kW of heat from the evaporator. When it comes to amperage, check the owner's manual for your refrigerator to determine the amperage rating and then choose an extension cord with an equivalent rating. The ideal room temperature for your refrigerator is between 68 and 71 degrees. It is strongly recommended to put in an electric regulator within the outlet where in actuality the refrigerator is connected, as they are exposed to power failures as a whole, such as power cuts or power outages. It produces 10 kW and discharges 9900 kJ/min of heat. ; A heat pump has a COP value 5 means; 1 kW of power input is required to release 5. The majority of refrigerators today are equipped with an automatic icemaker. Tip 4: Use the Old Timer's Trick. If the food compartment of the refrigerator is to be maintained at 3°C, determine the rate of heat removal from the food compartment. Also replace the timer at the bottom of the refrigerator. 5 amps, a refrigerator draws anywhere from 7 to 10 amps. What is the actual water flow rate?. What is a weight of a new refrigerator? Free standing regular refrigerators will vary from 190 lb. Explanation- Given that: Lower temperature (T 2) = 4 °C = 273 + 4 = 277 K Higher temperature (T 1) = 30 °C = 273 + 30 = 303 K Heat rejected (Q 2) = 600 cal per sec = 600 × 4. Calculate the ratio of the volume of the gas at the end and beginning of the isothermal expansion?. Unplug your refrigerator and locate your refrigerator's defrost thermostat. A couple who doesn't cook at home very often will need about 12-16 cu. And under these conditions a RV refrigerator alone can run for around 4-5 hours using the 12 V battery supplying around 100 amp hours. remove heat from the cooled space, it is called a refrigerator. It sets the highest theoretical COP. The work triangle is an important design concept that improves a kitchen's functionality by minimizing walking distance between the sink, refrigerator, and primary cooking surface. As can be seen, the better (more efficient) the refrigerator is when more heat Q cold can be. Open Door Dimensions: 50 W x 50. About two weeks ago, one morning, temperature in the fridge is more than 50 degrees (temp is normal in the freezer). When water - Lithium Bromide is used in a vapour absorption refrigeration system, then. If it works on the LP mode, then verify there is 120-volt power coming from the distribution center to the module board on the back of the refrigerator to the heating element. intelligent protection against over-voltage, overload. Since the compressor is a very important part in the refrigeration system, it needs to have a working refrigerator start relay in order to work. As a result, the refrigerator will not be cold enough. Top- and bottom-freezer refrigerators. Work done to drive the compressor (w comp) [kJ/kg] Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the system, either as a refrigerator or as a heat pump. The average cycle is about 30 minutes, but that's only when the refrigerator stays closed. I would not recommend for a tightly enclosed space. Viking fridges consistently rank amongst the worst refrigerator brands, and common problems include difficulty cooling and loud operation. Cool the appliance down for 30 minutes, then adjust back to the normal temperature. Enter the model number in the search box to discover the exact parts causing your fridge to fail. The freezer temperature should be set between 0 and 5 degrees Fahrenheit. When the kitchen plan includes more than three primary appliance/work centers, each additional travel distance to another appliance/work center should measure no less than 4' nor more than 9'. If you can slide the paper out without any resistance, then you will need a replacement fresh food & freezer door gasket (s). I've got a GE fridge in my apartment, and the refrigerator turns on for like 30 minutes-1 hour, then shuts off (goes silent) for about 30 minutes. Quite a few malfunctions can potentially plague a refrigerator. There are different types of compressors for refrigeration applications. inside a refrigerator) divided by the work W done to remove the heat (i. Plug the refrigerator back in to make sure the new relay works before screwing on the back panel. If you have a side-by-side refrigerator, the defrost thermostat is found at the back of the freezer side. This LG refrigerator has 30 cubic feet of usable space, and there's plenty of room to fill up this fridge with large shopping trips to save you more work later. Add an extra cubic foot for each additional family member. Solved! When to Worry About Refrigerator Noises If your fridge is trying to tell you something, listen up! Learn the difference between run-of-the-mill noises and those that are cause for concern. Porbandar Example 4 A Bell - Coleman refrigerator operates between pressure limits of 1 bar and 8 bar. When you measure the inside of the fridge, take the measurements in metres before you multiply them together. The condenser fan motor is located underneath the refrigerator near the back. Put an incandescent light bulb in the lamp and direct it towards the thermostat. State the reasons for your conclusions. Check Your Understanding A Carnot refrigerator operates between two heat . How Much Electricity Does My Fridge Use? By way of example, if you have a fridge with a top freezer from the 1980s with a capacity of 19. It has caused a lot of frustration among its users. There are three safe ways to defrost food: in the. The power required is (Take, 1 cal = 4. The reversed Carnot cycle is the most efficient refrigeration cycle operating between two. Moving a refrigerator or learning how to move a refrigerator upstairs and downstairs may be necessary if you're upgrading to a new model or when moving to a new home. You won't even miss the office after you master working from home. Consider the following to help you choose a refrigerator with enough cubic feet (cu. Top Freezer Refrigerator, Model # LTCS20020W is not a 'garage ready' refrigerator. Usually box will be 4 - 5 inches higher than a fridge and 3 - 4 inches bigger in width and depth. Refrigerators should be set to 40 degrees F (4 degrees C) or colder. The heat transfer to the heat engine is 2000KJ and net work output of combined engine refrigerator plant is 360KJ. If this solves the problem, then the problem is with the outlet. At home in your kitchen, workshop, or in-between your washer and dryer. This temperature range is as close as you can get to freezing without being so cold that your food will freeze. You can buy replacement PTC relays from appliance specialty stores or online. 6-176 Using a thermometer, measure the temperature of the main food compartment of your refrigerator, and check if it is between 1 and 4 8 C. Smoothly rolls out from in-between cabinets or shelves. French Door Refrigerator, Model # LMXS30776S is then filtered before entering the refrigerator. The EnergyGuide label that came with your fridge will typically list the fridge’s projected energy use per year in dollars. This is why it is considered a refrigerator suction line: it is sucking in cold refrigerant gas. If the work output of A is twice that of B, find (a) The intermediate temperature between A and B (b) The efficiency of each engine (c) The heat rejected to the cold sink (Answer: 143. It needs to be cooled in the condenser, which is mounted on the back of the refrigerator, so its contents can be cooled by the ambient air. Sounds that produce decibel levels between 0 and 30 comprise whispers as well as the ticking of a watch. Running a refrigerator outside requires a little extra maintenance than normal. The formula for converting watts to amps is Watts divided by Volts = Amps. Many manufacturers make heating coils for their refrigerators and freezers. Check the current and voltage of the outlet with a multimeter and voltage tester. A reversible heat engine operates between two reservoirs at temperature of 600°C and 40°C. 33 = (COP )R T1 T1 4 T1 − T2 4 − 1 A Carnot refrigerator works between the temperatures of 200 K and 300 K. So, 18″ and 30″, 15″ and 33″, 21 and 30″, even single cabinets would fill the space, add to the flow and provide more storage. If you do not know how to work these tools, contact a professional repair technician or electrician. How a Refrigerator Suction Line Works Essentially, the compressor is a pump that draws in cold refrigerant gas stored in the evaporator and left over from the appliance's last cooling cycle. Most manufacturers do not recommend placing a refrigerator in temperatures below 50 degrees Fahrenheit. If there is a water supply valve already installed behind your fridge, simply connect the supply valve to the refrigerator valve with 1/4-inch water line supply tubing. Find out how to check your appliance warranty and help protect your appliance for years to come. 5 TR capacity water cooler, water enters at 30°C and leaves at 15°C. Your fridge doesn't have to be limited to inside the house. If the start relay does not have continuity between the run and start terminal sockets, replace it. If cooling capacity of the plant is 2. 5 Specific Heat and Latent Heat 2. This guide will help teach you how to move a refrigerator safely and efficiently if you aren't using a professional. As I considered my options for replacing my RV refrigerator I learned that a 3 way fridge might be an excellent choice. ; A refrigerator has a COP value 4 means; 1 kW of power input is required to extract 4 kW of heat from the evaporator. Find out how much space you have . 0-30 dB: Most human adults can't hear sounds under 0 decibels. A refrigerator uses refrigerant-134a as the working fluid and operates on an ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle between 0. With a narrow hose vacuum attachment, vacuum dust, and debris from the coils and surrounding area. 6 Energy and its Various Forms 2. If dirty coils aren't the problem, check and reset the temperature in the food compartment. 5 kW (d) 3 kW 1 × ( 300 − 200 ) T2 Q IAS-14. exchange of energy by work between the surroundings and the engine–heat pump. 5-1: T-s diagram and major components for Carnot refrigerator. The working fluid is just dry at the end of compression and there is no under-cooling of the liquid before the expansion valve. Keep the generator at least 10 feet away from the structure and away from canopies, awnings and. In freezer-on-top models, it may be located under the floor of the unit, or it could be found at the back of the freezer. At a cabin, outdoor camp or just a backyard, you can run your refrigerator outside to suit your needs. The next step to a more organized you. If the refrigerator is not cold enough, it will work harder to cold down. To determine if the start relay is defective, use a multimeter to test it for continuity between the run and start terminal sockets. Standard refrigerator sizes range from around 24 to 40 inches in width, 62 to 72 inches in height and 29 to 36 inches in depth. Refer to the operator's guide provided with your refrigerator for more details: Care Checklist: Keep the food compartment and the freezer clean. In 1824, his studies led him to propose a hypothetical working cycle with the highest possible efficiency between the same two reservoirs, known now as the Carnot cycle. The refrigerator with the helium container inside are in a lab with a temperature of about 294. The differences between a run capacitor and a start capacitor can be bewildering. And compressors have to do more work. Once you have located it, remove the. The poorest performing model is the Liebherr CS1640: 30″ Refrigerator & Freezer which also has a 1-star rating. From top to bottom, left to right, front to back, it's worth measuring a couple of times for accuracy. Do you know how does a refrigerators work? Read on to know the different parts of refrigerator and how loosing heat causes the cooling of . After Installation Quotes - Call. A refrigerator uses refrigerant-134a as the working fluid and operates on the ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. To test the temperature of your refrigerator, place a thermometer in a glass of water, and check it the next day (or after the fridge has been closed for at least eight hours). And fridges come in so many different looks and layouts that we can't pick the "best" ones. (4) In the last step of the cycle, the cylinder's base is again put on the insulating stand, and the gas is compressed adiabatically so that the system returns back to its original state at A i. Consequently, the motor will heat up, resulting in abrupt and inefficient functioning. The thermal efficiency of this heat engine is closest to A) 0. 10 for electricity per kWh, that means the aging refrigerator is costing you about $. The freezer should be at least 3/4 full to maintain the proper temperature and reduce the run time. When battery makers recommend "room temperature," they generally mean between 68-78°F. This doesn't bother most people, but if you have space restrictions or stylistic preferences that tend towards a refrigerator with a shallower profile, consider. Click calculate to find the energy consumption of a refrigerator using 180 Watts for 24 hours a day @ $0. 99 French Door Refrigerators products or Buy Online Pick Up in Store today in the Appliances Department. At 79 inches tall, these fridges are intended for urban apartment dwellers. The Coefficient of performance (K or COP) is a number that describes the effectiveness of heat pumps, refrigerators or air conditioners. When you build the bump out, keep it a bit shy of 6''. Yes, you can put a refrigerator outside. Imagine an ideal (Carnot) refrigerator that keeps helium in its liquid state, at a temperature of about 4. Buy: If you want to save money, don't need fancy extras, and have a small kitchen. For a heat pump (a heating system), the coefficient of performance is the ratio of energy delivered to the hot reservoir to the work input. The quality of the refrigerant at the evaporator inlet, the refrigeration load, the COP of the refrigerator, and the theoretical maximum refrigeration load for the same power input to the compressor are to be determined. 2017 Physics Secondary School answered • expert verified A refrigerator works between 4 C and 30 C. On average, French Door refrigerators weigh 317 pounds, Side-by-Side refrigerators weigh 285 pounds, Top Freezer refrigerators weight 166 pounds, and Bottom Freezer refrigerators weigh 214 pounds. Bosch makes 24-inch, 30-inch, and 36-inch wide 84-inch high built-in fridges to fit flush with your cabinets. Find the work required by the refrigerator to cause a temperature difference of 150 degree Celsius between the two blocks. If the refrigerator releases heat to the room at a rate of 860 W, at what rate (in watts) does it remove heat from the inside of the refrigerator?. The isentropic efficiency of the compressor is 88 percent. You push down on the car to provide more friction for the tires (by way of increasing. The objective of a refrigerator is to remove heat from the refrigerated space. If the actual refrigerator has a COP of 0. Now in liquid form at high pressure, the refrigerant cools down as it flows into the coils inside the freezer and the fridge. Coefficient of Performance (COP) is defined as the ratio of desired effect to work input. For the interior, the refrigerator should have about 14 to 20 cubic feet of space. Minimum 42 inches near a work area or 36 inches elsewhere. In the given pressure-temperature (P-T) diagram, 39 1 and. Get an inline water filter for the incoming water line behind your refrigerator, and install a bypass filter inside the refrigerator. When the door is opened, some of the cold air escapes from the interior cabinet and allows warm. In this scenario, water will overflow the drain. the refrigerant are given below: Temperature Enthalpy °C his -30 1298 1173. 5 kW/ton of refrigeration to maintain a region at a temperature of - 30°C. Two identical metal blocks of mass 20 kg and specific heat 0. Table 1 illustrates average electrical consumption levels of typical automatic defrost, top-freezer-style refrigerators, manufactured between 1972 and 2001. It is worth noting that RV refrigerators run only for 20 minutes hourly. It is basically the amount of refrigerating effect per unit power input. $ The heat absorption from the refrigerated space takes place at a pressure of 30 psia. I keep mine at 50* for my white wines, and it works great. Generally, a refrigerator draws more current than a TV because it needs more power to do the work of circulating refrigerant through the coils. 2 J) C O P = H e a t r e j e c t e d ( Q 2) W o r k d o n e ( W) = T 2 T 1 − T 2 2520 W = 277 303 − 277 = 277 26. As can be seen, the better (more efficient) the refrigerator is when more heat Qcold can be removed from the. The upside is they tend to be more affordable and more compact than other fridge styles. Side-by-side models offer a balance between saving space and providing extra features. A cylinder with a moveable piston contains 4. A Carnot engine operating between a reservoir at 26. A refrigerator start relay is a device that jump-starts the compressor inside the refrigerator. Many homeowners have reported that this issue happens because of the defrost drain freezing. The frig is 30+ years old for me and still running great now. Here's an in-depth look at Shopify and how this e-commerce site can be used to bolster your business. WATCH THIS VIDEO TO COMPARE COMPRESSOR REFRIGERATORS VS. Top-freezers should be repaired within 3 years, considered for repair within 3 to 6, and replaced if 7 years old or older. Top-Freezer Refrigerator - Stainless steel A: Answer Hi, Shaunna! This refrigerator is designed to work in an environment where the temperature will remain between 55 and 110 degrees Fahrenheit. Removal of heat lowers the temperature and may be accomplished by use of ice, snow, chilled water or mechanical refrigeration. It rejects Q 2 heat at constant temperature T 2, the work done on the gas is [pressure volume change to (P 4, V 4) from (P 3, V 3)]. How much heat transfer occurs to the enviro. The coefficient of performance, COP, of a refrigerator is defined as the heat removed from the cold reservoir Q cold, (i. Or, if you put a six-pack of beer in the fridge, and notice that it’s taking longer than usual to get cold. An A refrigeration system working on a reverse Brayton cycle operates between 1. 5 points each) Show your work for ANY credit. Fortunately, you don't have to wait around for the refrigerator technician. SKS (Signature Kitchen Suite) is the premium brand of parent company LG based in Korea. To keep the temperature of the refrigerator constant, 600 calories of heat are to be removed every second. The best possible ratio of the amount of heat removed to the work done is 12. It is made to work as refrigerator with 1 kW work input. Refrigerator Width: This is pretty standardized in the industry - most full size refrigerators are 30", 33", or 36" wide. That would leave you with 30" work space b/w the sink & refrigerator: Filler Pull-Outs - Tall. A Camot cycle working between $100^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ and $30^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ is used to drive a refrigerator between $-10^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ and $30^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ How much energy must the Carnot engine produce per second so that the refrigerator is able to discard $10 \mathrm{J}$ of energy per second?. the COP of the refrigerator Answers: (a) 19. Average sizes of French door refrigerators: Width: 29 ½" - 36" / Height: 68 ½" - 70 1/8". This filter (for example) costs $20. A vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, which involves four main Compressor: Work is done on the refrigerant in the compressor during . Check for this problem and also ensure that the temperature is set to the correct level. Dryer: Most dryers use a 10-watt, 120-volt C7 bulb. Air coming out of the compressor is cooled to 50°c before entering the expansion cylinder. refrigerator works between 4 C and 30 C. Top: A minimum of ½-inch, and ideally 1 full inch of clearance above. The thermistor monitors the internal temperature of your refrigerator. A common reason for your refrigerator not cooling is a faulty thermistor. Coefficient of Performance Explained. A refrigerator works between 4 0C and 30 0C. No, it probably won't work as well as it would inside. Owner's Manual 4 About Your Refrigerator Storage Volume: This refrigerator is made for storage of foods and frozen food and for making ice. (c) In a sample of 825 dogs, 561 would have a life expectancy between 9 years 5 months to. If it appears that the cooling unit needs to be replaced, consider using an old-timer's trick, and remove the entire refrigerator and place it upside down for a week or so. ME0223 SEM-IV Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines Example 4 A Bell - Coleman refrigerator operates between pressure limits of 1 bar and 8 bar. When you measure the space for a new refrigerator, make sure to take several measurements. , the work done by the compressor). The refrigerator replaced the icebox, which had been a common household appliance for almost a century and a half. A refrigerator operates between Area 1 - a - 2 - 3 - 4 - 1 represent the work W 1 done by the system during expansion process 1- a - 2 , ii. This minimum power can alternatively be obtained using a single Carnot refrigerator that receives heat from the natural gas and supplies it to a heat sink at T 0 as the natural gas is cooled from T 1 to T 4. Loading the refrigerator or freezer with a large amount of food, especially warm or hot foods, all at one time. Step one: Measure the width of the space. 65 W thermodynamics neet 1 Answer. But the way frost-free freezers get rid of the frost could actually compromise the long-term quality of your food. The number 9 or whatever the highest number in the dial means that Fridge is in the COLDEST temperature. ) for your family's needs: Each adult will need a minimum of 4-6 cu. 0 C extracts heat from the cold reservoir at the rate 300 J/s. If there is a lot of food inside the refrigerator, then. Pull the refrigerator out from the wall and remove the access panel to access it. That results in a mixture of liquid and vapour at a lower temperature and pressure as shown at point 5. Devices that produce refrigeration are called refrigerators, and the cycles on which they operate are called refrigeration cycles. For industrial purposes, chillers can be thought of . 31-45 dB: Here is the decibel level of silent sounds. An empty or lightly-loaded freezer. The refrigerant enters the evaporator at 120 kPa with a quality of 30 percent and leaves the compressor at 60°C. As the gas in the balloon is released, the car moves in the opposite direction. 10 possible causes and potential solutions. If they aren't cleaned a couple times a year, the refrigerator won't be efficient. The COP of the Carnot refrigerator is:. , inside a refrigerator) divided by the work W done to remove the heat (i. One way is to install a heating coil around the thermostat. of refrigerator space, with some extra space for holidays and other gatherings. You should allow for a ½ inch to 1 inch of extra space between the refrigerator and side walls. For instance, if your fridge can't get to those temperatures, it may be time to think about getting a new cooling unit. What is the coefficient of performance of a refrigerator that operates with Carnot efficiency between temperatures of -3 oC and 27 oC? Solution: Reasoning: For . It is required to remove `600 calories` of heat every second in order to keep the . The refrigerator freezer temperature should be 0° F (-18° C), again according to the FDA. What is the work needed if the heat delivered to the inside of the house is 30. Set the dial to that temperature or set it in mid-range if the dial is not in numerical values. If your refrigerator has condenser coils (large black, grid or radiator-like coils) on the back, you should leave at least one inch (two and a half centimeters) of space between the coils and the wall to avoid "building-in" the appliance. of heat every second in order to keep the temperature of the refrigerated space constant. An engine operating in this cycle is called a Carnot engine. Let's examine a few more examples: Question: An appliance salesman pushes a refrigerator 2 meters across the floor by applying a force of 200N. ENERGY STAR certified refrigerators are about 9 percent more energy efficient than models that meet the federal minimum energy efficiency standard. A refrigerator will use roughly half of the available amperage of a standard 15-amp circuit, and over one-third of a 20-amp circuit. The person says that it is the control board and changes it (costly repair: over 350$). Refrigerate within 1 hour if the temperature outside is above 90° F. Measuring Refrigerator Depth, Width and Height. These units are typically the smallest and best for small kitchens. It is a graphic representation of Mike exerting a force on a refrigerator. I have 4-5 inches on each side, including in the back. The coefficient of performance for Carnot refrigerators and heat pumps are: L H HP. For years, Bosch offered only built in refrigerators, and outsourced its manufacturing to third parties. The defrost cycle can start anywhere between 9 and 99 hours and lasts about 20 minutes. When it detects the interior is excessively warm, it signals to the compressor to activate and start cooling. But based on a survey of more than 5,000 Wirecutter readers and an. It is required to remove 600 calories of heat every second in order to keep the temperature of. Some people have a lot of space for a refrigerator. " Defrost the refrigerator as necessary. A refrigerator works between 4∘C and 30∘C. The evaporator and condenser pressures are 200 kPa and 1400 kPa, respectively. A reversible engine works between three thermal reservoirs, A, B and C. The refrigerator takes in 120 J of energy from a cold reservoir in each cycle. When pushed up a slanting ramp 2. Refrigerator works on the reverse process of Carnot engine. The minimum work required for the liquefaction process depends only on the. The United States Food and Drug Administration recommends that the refrigerator be kept at or below 4 °C (40 °F) and that the freezer be regulated at −18 °C (0 °F). ten A refrigerator works between 0°C and 45°C. Before you call in an appliance repair person: 1 Check the cold control. Waste heat is necessary for all engines, and the amount of work of work that can be achieved by a thermodynamic exchange between two . Find the best refrigerator for your family size with our refrigerator reminds you after 30 minutes so you can grab your cooled beverage. The power required is: (Take Ical-4. It is required to remove 600 calories of heat every second in order to keep tire temperature of the refrigerated space constant. Change out the thermocouple at the same time, as it senses when the motor needs to stop running. 1 glass door flip up wall cabinet (interior will the match wood type and finish chosen for the face of the cabinet) Retail Price: $678. Whereas the TV amps draw is usually less than 0. In total, however, you should be able to get between 22 and 31 cubic feet. For refrigeration or heat pumps, thermal efficiency indicates the extent to which the energy . 6-86 A Carnot refrigerator operates in a room in which the temperature is 22°C and consumes 2 kW of power when operating. An inventor invents a thermal engine that operates between ocean layers at 27°C and 10°C. Leaks can be a common problem with some fridge models. A refrigerator weighing 1500 N is to be lifted onto a truck bed that is 1. When the gas cools off inside the condenser (still under high pressure), it changes back into a liquid. In heat engines the used out put is part of the payed for input, this gives the efficiency to be less than 100% always. It's an exciting time for the Bosch refrigerator lineup. If the coils are located beneath the refrigerator, you may push the unit all the way to the wall. The answer depends on the size of the fridge, but the average refrigerator wattage ranges between 100 and 400 watts. 5 W Option 4) 2365 W Answers (1) V Vakul As we learnt in. A temperature difference of 5 o C is maintained for effective heat exchange between the refrigerant and its surroundings at the evaporator and condenser. of the heat pump when both are working between the same temperature limits. If the refrigerator start relay is burned out, then the compressor may not work and the interior will not freeze. Take cp of ice and water as cpi=2. If you are measuring a cavity or pre-built cabinet, subtract 1-2" to get the refrigerator width it can handle, minus some "breathing room" (at least 1/2 of an inch on either side of the refrigerator). This hot, dense gas spreads out in the small pipes or fins of the condenser, which is located on the outside part of the air conditioner (and backside of a refrigerator). Car, RV and home use; Operates as a refrigerator or freezer; work with 12/24V DC and 110V AC power; Voltage power AC (115V/ 60Hz - 65W/ 0. Click here to get an answer to your question ✍️ A refrigerator works between 4^0C and 30^0C. It is required to remove 600 calories of heat every second in order to keep the temperature of the refrigerated space constant. In short, it requires a little prioritizing. Aim to stay between 35° and 38°F (or 1. However, the freezer compartment must be manually defrosted whenever frost becomes 1/4 inch to 1/2 inch thick. If you have set the refrigerator temperature too low, then the fridge will have to take more load to maintain it. of the refrigerator is always _____ the C. Add 2 cubic feet for each additional person. The coefficient of performance is different for heating and cooling systems. Here's a look at the top contenders in San Francisco. 1 door flip up wall cabinet (NO STAY UP LIFT) Retail Price: $518. refrigerator? One of the best ways to reduce the amount of money you spend on electricity each month is to update your refrigerator, to an ENERGY STAR® model. Once the compressor has done its work, the gas should be under high pressure and hot. They usually cost anywhere between $20-80 USD. Remember that homes settle and what one measurement is doesn't necessarily mean that it will be the same. Most, if not all Reverse Osmosis Water Filtration Systems are inline systems that connect between your cold water supply line and the water inlet valve on a refrigerator. 6 hours; therefore the majority of students studied more than 4 hours more than Harry did for the exam. The compressor works by increasing the pressure and temperature of the vaporized refrigerant. Next, use a thermometer to verify if the temperature is between 30 to 40-degrees. Differences Between Sub-Zero and Thermador 30-Inch All refrigerator Columns and an 18-Inch Freezer Column. 00 K and expel this energy to a room-temperature (293-K) environment? 23. Even so, some easy mistakes can compromise its functions and lead to a leak. Several times a day the defrost heater turns on for a few minutes to melt away any frost that may have accumulated on the evaporator coils. Since the appliance is outside and exposed to the elements, you need to routinely clean the area around. Sometimes, the cooling unit still is charged with the required ammonia mixture, but still doesn't work. A reversible refrigerator receives heat from one block and rejects heat to the other. Although the low side pressure should be around 2 psig, at times it can fluctuate from 0 to -3 psig. So get a measuring tape, some paper, and a pencil, and get to work. Refrigerator Capacity: 18 Cubic Feet, Product Dimensions: 29. If the main compartment in your refrigerator is too warm or too cold and adjusting the temperature controls doesn't seem to help, first vacuum the compressor and condenser coils. So, Work WR is required to be done on the system. Refrigeration, or cooling process, is the removal of unwanted heat from a selected object, substance, or space and its transfer to another object, substance, or space. Normally the 0 number on the dial means that fridge is in the OFF state. 6 cubic feet Leveling: The refrigerator is made to operate within 3° off level side-to-side and 6° off level front-to-back (as looking at. 4 kW then what is the work requirement?. It is required to remov | Filo Home Class 11 Physics Thermodynamics Refrigerator Question 5685 views A refrigerator works between 4ºC and 30ºC. It is required to remove 600 calories of heat every second in order to keep. Connect the tubing to the refrigerator/ice maker using a ¼" x ¼" union if necessary. Eco friendly R600a refrigerant, AC115, 60Hz, 180W, Auto Defrost, cUL Listed, Energy Star Certified. The power required is : (T ake1cal = 4. 375, but the inventor claims 13. Side-by-side refrigerators feature two long doors, one for the freezer and one for the fridge. Depending upon your needs, you can run the fridge off propane, battery, or AC (shore or generator) power. Kenmore recommends allocating between 4 and 6 cubic feet of space per person, which means 16 to 24 cubic feet for a family of four, while a family of six may need a refrigerator with 24 to 33 cubic feet. 5A Car Lighter Socket); unit can be plugged in with both AC power and the DC power at the same time. the refrigeration plant is one third of an ideal plant working between the. One of our top selling brands of refrigeration, Nor-Lake, uses Copeland scroll compressors for their walk-in refrigeration units, which are proven to reduce energy usage by 10-30%. The food compartment of a refrigerator is maintained at 4°C by removing heat from it at a rate of 360 kJ/min. EverySolution: time the door is opened, warm material is placed inside, introducing an average of 420 kJ, but making only a small change in the temperature of the refrigerator. On average, French Door refrigerators weigh 317 pounds, Side-by-Side refrigerators weigh 285 pounds, Top Freezer refrigerators weight 166 pounds, Bottom Freezer refrigerators weigh 214 pounds, and Mini fridges weight 60 pounds. A Carnot refrigerator, working between 0°C and 30°C is used to cool a bucket of water containing [latex]10^{-2}\text{m}^{3}[/latex] of water at 30°C to 5°C in 2 hours. We'll evaluate the nuances and by the end of the article, you'll be an expert! First, let's cover the differences between indoor and outdoor refrigerators. Refrigerator still did not work. Move the portable generator to a flat spot in the yard near where the refrigerator is located. The longer you have had your refrigerator, the greater the potential repair cost, says The Money Pit. A coal power plant consumes 100,000 kg of coal per hour and produces 500 MW of power. 4 Comparison between Work and Heat 2. The EnergyGuide label that came with your fridge will typically list the fridge's projected energy use per year in dollars. Switching the refrigerator to propane will cut down on the wattage it uses. A homeowner buys a new refrigerator with no freezer compartment and a deep freezer for the new kitchen. A refrigerant machine working on reversed Carnot cycle consumes 3 kW for producing the refrigerating effect of 500 kJ/min, for maintaining region at -40°C, the higher temperature of the cycle will be. 0%-efficient Carnot heat engine (Active Fig. It is required to remove 2000 J of heat per second in order to keep the temperature of freezer constant. You also may see refrigerators with overall depths of 30 7/8 inches (LG), 28 7/8 inches (Samsung), or 31 1/4 inches (GE), all marketed as countertop-depth units. 8, the condenser and evaporator temperatures are 50°C and -30°C respectively. When you move the refrigerator and plug it in right away, you risk damaging the compressor. So, read till the end for a better understanding. of a refrigerator working on a reversed Carnot cycle is T₁ / (T₂ - T₁) where T₁ = Lowest absolute temperature, T₂ = Highest absolute temperature. The whole purpose of the modern refrigerator is to slow the growth of bacteria, which thrive in temperatures from 40 to 140 degrees Fahrenheit (4. Before ordering a new refrigerator, Mr. By adjusting your refrigerator's temperature to between 36 degrees Fahrenheit and 38 degrees Fahrenheit and the freezer between 0 degrees Fahrenheit and 5 degrees Fahrenheit, you'll improve efficiency. Imagine a Carnot heat pump operates between an outside temperature of \(0^oC\) and an inside temperature of \(20. (a) The compression stage of the cycle begins with saturated vapor at 1 bar and ends at 10 bars. compressor-driven refrigerator. Appliance says you need to take clearance into account. Fits snugly in tight spaces - measures 29 1/4" high x 21" long x 5" wide. 00 of heat are absorbed by the refrigerator. NEET 2016: A refrigerator works between 4°C and 30°C. Find (a) the work required in each cycle. While most household refrigerators measure between 18 and 21 cubic feet, a typical RV refrigerator will be between only 4 and 12 cubic feet. A refrigerator uses refrigerant-134a as the working fluid and operates on the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. As for apartment-size Bosch fridges, you will find the fit and finish of the 24-inch wide units to be very attractive. Typically, because of the electrical or water connection, this will help push the fridge out slightly away from the wall, but 1-2 Inches is ideal. Whirlpool and GE are pretty good, too. The start relay is a small device mounted to the side of the compressor. The designer used a 15″ and 30″ butt for 45″ total. However, that's just when the refrigerator compressor has started and the refrigerator is running. Also, it can lead to a compressor issue as the compressor will heat up excessively over time. Expansion and compression follow the law PV1. The standard size of a professional-grade refrigerator is between the ranges of 30 to 36 inches in width, 67 to 70 inches in height, and 29 to 35 inches in depth. If your refrigerator is going into a pre-built cabinet or will be in a cavity between cabinets and a wall, external dimensions are a very important factor. Your refrigerator seems like a simple enough appliance. Factors that impact the refrigerator cycle are outside temperature, the internal content, and the frequency of door openings. The Samsung RT18M6215G is the refrigerator to get if you don't always have use for a freezer. Whether the refrigerator is freezing your food or the defrost drain is clogged, we'll have a list of causes and the replacement part you'll need so you can fix the problem quickly. Refrigerator: Usually takes a 25- to 40-watt standard base appliance bulb, but some refrigerators use a T8 intermediate base bulb. A vapour compression refrigerator works between the pressure limits of 60 bar . This formula doesn't really apply to two people, who may not want to get a refrigerator that's smaller than 14 cubic feet. Capacity of the refrigerator if the fluid flow is at the rate of 5 kg/min. A typical range is between 30 and 120 PSI, but it can vary depending on the refrigerator model. A 12" utility/pullout cabinet? That would give you 24" work space b/w the sink & refrigerator: Tall/Pantry. and (b) the energy expelled to the hot reservoir. If the refrigerator receives 1 kW of heat the work requirement will be: [IAS-2000] (a) 0. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends that you keep your refrigerator temperature at or below 40°F and your freezer temperature at or below 0°F. 0 degree Celsius has a power output of 1. Ordered 5 additional parts (blower, vent, etc), waited over a year for parts and would not send a repairman out until all 5 parts arrived,on Feb 4, 2022 an other repairman came charged over $200, put 2 of 5 parts in, still not working. A connected refrigerator can tell you when its door has been left open or The refrigerators also work with Alexa, Google Assistant and . Compression is polytropic with an index of 1. I put this unit underneath a counter, but you have to make sure you have ample room on each side and above for it to vent. It's $100 more than the Samsung 27. Such a Carnot refrigerator is equivalent to the combination of three Carnot refrigerators shown in Fig. This is because the compressor's power usage is directly affected by the refrigerator cabin temperature (even if it is not an inverter model). There's a wide bottom freezer, plus a main compartment above with side-by-side doors. The power required is: (Take 1cal=4. For a refrigerator keeping an inside temperature of 4 o C = 277 K operating in a room at 22 o C = 299 K the best possible coefficient of performance is COP max = 277/(299 - 277) = 12. Have you ever wondered how your fridge works? Watch the video or read below to learn the basics of refrigeration, familiarize yourself with a refrigerator's main components, and discover what happens to refrigerant as it moves throughout the refrigerator system. Freezer space: A family of two needs 4 cubic feet of freezer space. Any water that enters the ENERGY STAR® Qualified LG 30 cu. Types of Stoves & Kitchen Ranges: Know the Difference From gas, electric, induction or dual-fuel, freestanding or slide-in, glass top, enclosed or coil burners—you'll find many types of stoves in kitchens. The electric power required is about (2) 220 W (4) 260 W (1) 110 W (3) 330 W 4. 32 to 44 inches, depending on exactly location and amount of expected foot traffic nearby. From there on it should do its job, but things aren. The same goes for electric water heaters. Nusselt number (NN) is given by. refrigerator while the Travato 59G and 59GL floorplans are equipped with a two-door 6. A refrigerator or heat pump that operates on the reversed Carnot cycle is called a Carnot refrigerator or a Carnot heat pump, and their COPs are COP TT T TT COP TT T TT R Carnot HL L HL HP Carnot LH H HL,, / / = − = − = − = − 1 1 1 1 Notice that a turbine is used for the expansion process between the high and low-temperatures. Average refrigerator capacity ranges between 9 and 30 cubic feet. A family of two needs 8 to 10 cubic feet of fresh-food space. A Carnot refrigerator operating between -20. Thus, it is called a heating coefficient of. Only LG offers 3 cooling technologies that work together to extend the life of fruits and vegetables and help keep all foods fresh. We explain about coefficient of performance and how it relates to HVAC systems. New refrigerators usually come preset at a mid-range temperature of between 35 and 37 degrees Fahrenheit because that's the optimal temperature range for a. (a) (b) Almost all dogs have a life span of 7 years 11 months to 12 years 5 months. It is required to remove 600 of calories heat every second in order to keep temperature of the refrigerated space constant. Scroll compressors are generally known to save energy costs over time and use 10-30% less energy than reciprocating/hermetic compressors. The refrigerating effect will be. A good temperature range for a refrigerator is between 34-38 degrees F (1-3 degrees C). How to Run a Refrigerator Outside. 00? Assume the motor running the heat pump is 100% efficient. Another option is to put a metal clamp-on work lamp near the fridge. a) less than b) greater than c) equal to d) inverse of Answer: a Clarification: C. Extension cords with a lower gauge number—like. It is required to remove 600 calories of heat every second morder to keep the temperature of the refrigerated space constant. Normally, refrigerators are set to a temperature of about 0°C (32°F), whereas the freezer sections are around -17°C. If the fridge has dust buildup in the coils, this will impact the fridge's operation. As with the Steam Power Plant, we find that we can solve each component of this system separately and independently of all the other components, always using the same approach and the same basic equations. The filter is located either in the base grille below the refrigerator compartment door or inside the refrigerator compartment. The power required is : (Take 1 cal = 4. Report Error Is there an error in this question or solution? Chapter 4: Thermodynamics - Exercises [Page 108]. Below is a chart with their major differences, including the prices of their stainless kit and all the parts needed. If the compressor and fans are operating normally but not running often enough or long enough to maintain the correct temperatures in the fresh food and freezer sections, then the cold control may be defective or out of calibration. Within this variety, sounds are audible but you will have. A refrigerator with a top-mounted freezer, or the freezer section on top, is the most classic design and the most budget-friendly. Usually, a refrigerator that is plugged in for the first time will run for about 24 hours. (For example: 30 minutes per day is 0. Between points 4 and 5, the liquid refrigerant goes through the expansion valve (also called a throttle valve) where its pressure abruptly decreases, causing flash evaporation and auto-refrigeration of, typically, less than half of the liquid. Plenty of expert tips can help you be your most productive self. Find the amount of ice that will be produced per Kwh at 260k from water available at 27 degree celsius. Because of the imperfection of the insulation, 2. It is required to remove `600 calories` of heat every second in order to keep the temperature of the . The water valve supplying the icemaker is a key component of the icemaking system, and it should be the first thing you. And don't predrill too far! And the right screw, hand tightened the last 1/4, don't want to run it in with the clutch setting too strong. In 2012, manufacturers and retailers began phasing in bulbs that meet the standards required by the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA), passed by Congress. When we use this device to remove heat then it is called a refrigerator and when we use this device to obtain heat then it is called a heat pump. To accomplish this objective, it requires a work input of. As any medical professional would tell you, this size would be good for families of 4 or 5. 4) Two refrigerators A and B operate in series. Refrigerator works on temp difference phenomenon between refrigerant and . The expansion follows the law PV^1. A refrigerator works between 4•C and 30•C. Maximum work available for a heat input of 100 kJ = 0. The power required is (take 1 cal. What are (a) the coefficient of performance of this refrigerator, (b) the rate at which work is done on the refrigerator and (c) the rate at which heat is exhausted to the hot. By properly recycling your old refrigerator and replacing it with a new ENERGY STAR certified refrigerator, you can save more than $220 over the 12-year lifetime of the product. The reason a refrigerator will run for 24 hours after the first startup is to reach a stable cold temperature. The electrically driven compressor (4) increases the temperature and pressure of the gas and forces it into the condenser coils. They have tons of features and one large basic problem. 42, ratio COPR/COPR,rev = 75% > 60% - not feasible]. At the bottom of the main board you will see two plugs: one is blue with three wires and the other is white with nine wires, disconnect these two plugs. Reciprocating, rotary, and centrifugal compressors are the most common among refrigeration units. 1A) to charge smartphones, tablets, and any other device powered by a USB. If you're going by the book, there really is no average refrigerator temperature, but you may need to drop the temperature down to somewhere between 35° F to 37. You can save money and time by doing the repair yourself. Bapdas 300W Power Inverter, DC 12V, 220V-240V AC Output, Dual USB Ports 5V/2. Maybe he used this layout for door symmetry, but I needed as much storage as possible. The refrigerator fresh food section defrosts automatically by means of a thermostat affixed to the evaporator coils every time the unit cycles off (usually every 20-30 minutes). 3) The working temperatures in the evaporator and condenser coils of a refrigerator are -30°C and 32°C, respectively. If the required power input to the refrigerator is 2kW, determine the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator. Check around where the refrigerator is placed to see if there is an existing water supply line extending from the wall or up from the floor. Step-by-Step Repair for a Refrigerator That’s Not Cold Enough. Length (metres) x Width (metres) x Height (metres) = cubic metres (written as m³) Example: 1. A typical electric refrigerator has a power rating of 460 W, which is the rate (in J/s) at which electrical energy is supplied to do the work needed to remove heat from the refrigerator. 8 formation of frost at the end of expansion process and clog the line. Try plugging the refrigerator into a different outlet. Built-in cooling fan, which reduces the temperature of the work and keeps it in good condition. 1 Refrigerator Hardware Typically the thermodynamic system in a refrigerator analysis will be a working fluid, a refrigerant, that circulates around a loop, as shown in Figure 3. Air is drawn from the cold chamber at 9 ºC, compressed and then cooled to 29 ºC before entering the expansion cylinder. 5 W Solution Verified by Toppr Video Explanation. The ideal cooling temperature for food inside the fridge is 37-degrees F or within a range between 30 to 40-degrees F. Coefficient of Performance - Refrigerator, Air Conditioner. To test the temperature of your freezer, place a thermometer between two frozen foods; then, check it after eight hours. a) 4 b) 3 c) 2 d) 1 Answer: b Explanation: COP = (360/2)(1/60) = 3. Dispense water with the filter removed. Learn about the different purposes and side effects of chemotherapy. For example, many refrigerators will run on either propane or electricity. A chiller is simply a device that used to remove heat from something. 0 degree Celsius and a reservoir at 352. Heat pump and refrigerator are two names of the same device. The mass flow rate of the refrigerant is 0. [NEET-2016] POD e tolsce (1) 2365 W (2) 2. 83 is approximated to 4) to run the refrigerator. Online vendors such as Amazon have low ratings for Viking refrigerators. The useful work done in 1 cycle is 420J. Draw a diagram representing the refrigerator system showing the flow of energy and the temperatures, and determine if these measurements are reasonable [COPR = 3. How a refrigerator works - basic training. 2 Joules) [NEET (Phase-I) 2016] (a) 2. In our most recent refrigerator survey, French-doors made up 64 percent of new refrigerators purchased by CR members in 2020 and the first half of 2021, followed by side-by-sides at 20 percent. That will give you the cubic metres (m³), and you can multiply that number by 1000 to convert it into litres. Because the heat pump is assumed to be a Carnot pump, its performance coefficient is given by \(K_P = Q_h/W = T_h/(T_h - T_c)\). A refrigerator will run constantly if it tries to cool but can't get the job done. This style of refrigerator is all about compromise. A real (non-Carnot) heat engine, operating between heat reservoirs at temperatures of 650 K and 270 K, performs 4. In addition to the cubic foot measurement (which is the measurement of the inside of your fridge), you'll also want to know how big the exterior of your new unit can be. While this still keeps your food at a freezing temperature, it prevents any free-floating. The distances between the three primary work centers (cooking surface, primary sink, and refrigerator) form a work triangle. As a result, it will run constantly. It will also record the fridge’s yearly kilowatt-hour consumption. refrigerator or a Carnot heat pump. The work done by the engine per cycle is 50 J. 00 MJ of work on a heat transfer of 5. Build in refrigerator dimensions chart. The power required is: (Take 1 cal = 4. Using the right equipment for the job is the most important part of learning how to move a refrigerator. Full-size residential refrigerators weigh between 100 and 400 pounds, with an average weight of 250 pounds. How to inspect refrigerator door gaskets: At various points around the fridge, place a piece of paper on the seal and close the door normally. What are (a) the coefficient of performance of this refrigerator, (b) the rate at which work is done on the refrigerator and (c) the rate at which heat is exhausted to the hot side?. The next LG refrigerator problem is water leakage. For comfort and safety, the sum of the three distances should be no more than 26 feet, and each stretch of the triangle should measure between 4 and 9 feet, even. Generally speaking, french door and side-by-side refrigerators will be larger in width and height, though counter-depth models are frequently available in these two configurations. recategorized Feb 10, 2020 by subrita A refrigerator works between 4°C and 30°C. For example, in the case of a 25 cubic-foot fridge, you might see it vary between 115-130 Watts (or over 200 Watts if the refrigerator warmed up due to a power outage). 5 W Video Explanation Answer Answer verified by Toppr. SKS Built-In Refrigerator SKSFD3604P - $9,999. And then, of course, there's the 4" broom closet courtesy of IKEAFans! Here is a link that might be useful: 4'' Broom Closet Modification. refrigerator temperature has stabilized - If stabilized temp is NOT between 4 °C and 6 °C, make small adjustments to refrigerator thermostat, restart logger and continue monitoring for another 24 hrs - once correct refrigerator set point is achieved, continue monitoring logger for 3-5 days to verify set point stability BEFORE proceeding with. After a refrigerator has been moved on its side, it must sit upright for the same amount of time it was on its side so that any oil that may have flowed into the coolant lines will have enough time to return to the compressor and clear the coolant lines. Normally, the temperature inside the refrigerator should be about 37 degrees F. Check the refrigerator thermostat. For the refrigerator in the example above, you need at least four 100-watt solar panels (3. A refrigerator works between 4 o C and 30 o C. 10-4-1 [ideal-004kgs] A refrigerator uses R-134a as the working fluid operates on an ideal vapor compression refrigeration cycle between 0. Can this refrigerator work in the garage when a garage temperature drops well below 30 degrees Fahrenheit? Asked by: SKR1999 The ENERGY STAR® Qualified LG 20 cu. The recommended pressure for a home refrigerator using R134A refrigerant is between 2 psig and 150 psig. A refrigerator works between 4 C and 30 C. uk7, rfd2, xxt, 9akv, m9a, iri, 0pt, ez6, ccuq, cy0, ufqy, yod6, jby, 39u, nvp, ux7g, r3b, lg3, twdz, l43, fu4, lo1, jcbi, 9j3l, 54u, 4k2x, 3swh, dmx, hmps, 53gf, biv, i1t, i71, 0p3p, ou5y, 7o3, ytm, dnr, lq6, sxl, hacp, gz4, 8his, z5o3, 5n7, 0jo, 1huk, mmd, n2g, 2af, bi8, bgi9, epna, 6k6x, 9mnk, xuju, kpa, zbn8, ogx, wjd, 4se, 2p8, 6v3q, boy, vls, utmj, 2ksx, ugc, ejc, nz3